b'Program NotescontinuedLike most of Schuberts works, the Fourth Symphony was not performed publicly during his lifetime. He inscribed the title Tragic on it several years later, but this title is somewhat misleading, since the symphony is not uniformly dark. I interpret the title dramatically, along the lines of a romantic heros struggles, both internal and with society. In 1822, Schubert wrote a prose piece, The Dream. While The Dream is not necessarily autobiographical, this excerpt seems an appropriate description of Schuberts own dramatic mood shifts: For long years I felt torn between the greatest grief and the greatest love Whenever I attempted to sing of love, it turned to pain. And again, when I tried to sing of pain, it turned to love. Thus were love and pain divided in me. In the brooding character of the opening of the symphony, we hear echoes of Beethovens famous C minor works, such as the Coriolan Overture and the fifth symphony. Schubert was a torchbearer at Beethovens funeral in 1828, though at this earlier stage of his life I am more aware of Schuberts emulation of the classicism of Mozart. The four movements of the symphony follow a conventional form, beginning with an Allegro vivace preceded by a slow introduction. This is followed by the lovely slow movement Andante and a third movement Allegro vivace, which continues the more hopeful character of the second movement. The last movement Allegro thrusts the listener back into a restless C minor, though despite the Tragic moniker, the work concludes in C major. Schuberts fourth symphony has been overshadowed by the famous Unfinished and the Great C major symphonies, but it is a finely crafted and delightful work that deserves to be heard far more often. Instrumentationtwo flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, timpani, and stringsDuration31 minutes~Nell FlandersAssistant Conductor Princeton Symphony Orchestra, 2018-2021Visiting Lecturer in Orchestra Studies University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 2021-presentprincetonsymphony.org/ 18/ princetonfestival.org'